preamble of indian constitution

February 12, 2009
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN
and to secure to all its citizens:
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;

LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;

EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;

and to promote among them all

FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity[Note 1] of the Nation;

IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY


olympic 2008

February 12, 2009
Rank  ↓ Nation  ↓ Gold  ↓ Silver  ↓ Bronze  ↓ Total  ↓
1  China (CHN) 51 21 28 100
2  United States (USA) 36 38 36 110
3  Russia (RUS) 23 21 28 72
4  Great Britain (GBR) 19 13 15 47
5  Germany (GER) 16 10 15 41
6  Australia (AUS) 14 15 17 46
7  South Korea (KOR) 13 10 8 31
8  Japan (JPN) 9 6 10 25
9  Italy (ITA) 8 10 10 28
10  France (FRA) 7 16 17 40

india in olympics

February 12, 2009
Medal  ↓ Name  ↓ Games  ↓ Sport  ↓ Event  ↓
2 Silver Pritchard, NormanNorman Pritchard* 1900 Paris Athletics Men’s 200 metres
2 Silver Pritchard, NormanNorman Pritchard* 1900 Paris Athletics Men’s 200 metre hurdles
1 Gold National team 1928 Amsterdam Field hockey Men’s competition
1 Gold National team 1932 Los Angeles Field hockey Men’s competition
1 Gold National team 1936 Berlin Field hockey Men’s competition
1 Gold National team 1948 London Field hockey Men’s competition
1 Gold National team 1952 Helsinki Field hockey Men’s competition
3 Bronze Jadhav, Khashaba DadasahebKhashaba Dadasaheb Jadhav 1952 Helsinki Wrestling Men’s freestyle bantamweight
1 Gold National team 1956 Melbourne Field hockey Men’s competition
2 Silver National team 1960 Rome Field hockey Men’s competition
1 Gold National team 1964 Tokyo Field hockey Men’s competition
3 Bronze National team 1968 Mexico Field hockey Men’s competition
3 Bronze National team 1972 Munich Field hockey Men’s competition
1 Gold National team 1980 Moscow Field hockey Men’s competition
3 Bronze Paes, LeanderLeander Paes 1996 Atlanta Tennis Men’s singles
3 Bronze Malleswari, KarnamKarnam Malleswari 2000 Sydney Weightlifting Women’s 69 kg
2 Silver Rathore, Rajyavardhan SinghRajyavardhan Singh Rathore 2004 Athens Shooting Men’s double trap
1 Gold Bindra, AbhinavAbhinav Bindra 2008 Beijing Shooting Men’s 10m Air Rifle
3 Bronze Kumar, SushilSushil Kumar 2008 Beijing Wrestling Men’s 66 Kg Freestyle
3 Bronze Kumar, VijenderVijender Kumar 2008 Beijing Boxing Men’s 75 Kg
  • IOC regards this medal is credited to India, and International committees credits to Great Britain.

[edit] Medal tables

See also: All-time Olympic Games medal count
Games Gold Silver Bronze Total
1900 Paris 0 2 0 2
1904 St. Louis did not participate
1908 London did not participate
1912 Stockholm did not participate
1920 Antwerp 0 0 0 0
1924 Paris 0 0 0 0
1928 Amsterdam 1 0 0 1
1932 Los Angeles 1 0 0 1
1936 Berlin 1 0 0 1
1948 London 1 0 0 1
1952 Helsinki 1 0 1 2
1956 Melbourne 1 0 0 1
1960 Rome 0 1 0 1
1964 Tokyo 1 0 0 1
1968 Mexico City 0 0 1 1
1972 Munich 0 0 1 1
1976 Montreal 0 0 0 0
1980 Moscow 1 0 0 1
1984 Los Angeles 0 0 0 0
1988 Seoul 0 0 0 0
1992 Barcelona 0 0 0 0
1996 Atlanta 0 0 1 1
2000 Sydney 0 0 1 1
2004 Athens 0 1 0 1
2008 Beijing 1 0 2 3
Total 9 4 7 20

[edit] Medals by sport

Sport Gold Silver Bronze Total
Field hockey 8 1 2 11
Shooting 1 1 0 2
Athletics 0 2 0 2
Wrestling 0 0 2 2
Weightlifting 0 0 1 1
Tennis 0 0 1 1
Boxing 0 0 1 1
Total 9 4 7 20

secretories of uno

February 12, 2009
Secretaries-General of the United Nations[13]
No. Name Country of origin Took office Left office Note
1 Trygve Lie  Norway 2 February 1946 10 November 1952 Resigned
2 Dag Hammarskjöld  Sweden 10 April 1953 18 September 1961 Died while in office
3 U Thant  Burma 30 November 1961 1 January 1972 First Secretary-General from Asia
4 Kurt Waldheim  Austria 1 January 1972 1 January 1982  
5 Javier Pérez de Cuéllar  Peru 1 January 1982 1 January 1992 First Secretary-General from South America
6 Boutros Boutros-Ghali  Egypt 1 January 1992 1 January 1997 First Secretary-General from Africa
7 Kofi Annan  Ghana 1 January 1997 1 January 2007  
8 Ban Ki-moon  South Korea 1 January 2007 Incumbent  

deputy prime ministers of india

February 12, 2009
Name Portrait Entered office Left office Date of Birth and Death Political party
1 Sardar Patel 15 August 1947 15 December 1950 * 31 October 187515 December 1950 Indian National Congress
2 Morarji Desai 21 March 1967 6 December 1969 ** 29 February 189610 April 1995 Indian National Congress
3 Choudhary Charan Singh 28 July 1979 9 October 1979 ** 23 December 190229 May 1987 Janata Party
4 Jagjivan Ram 9 October 1979 10 December 1979 5 April 19086 July 1986 Janata Party
5 Yashwantrao Chavan 10 December 1979 14 January 1980 *** 12 March 191325 November 1984 Janata Party
6 Chaudhari Devi Lal 19 October 1989 21 June 1991 23 July 191414 November 2001 Janata Dal
7 Lal Krishna Advani 29 June 2002 20 May 2004 8 November 1927 – present Bharatiya Janata Party

vice presidents of india

February 12, 2009
No. Vice-President Took office Left office President
1 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan 13 May 1952 12 May 1962 Rajendra Prasad
2 Zakir Hussain 13 May 1962 12 May 1967 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
3 Varahagiri Venkata Giri 13 May 1967 3 May 1969 Zakir Hussain
4 Gopal Swarup Pathak 31 August 1969 30 August 1974 Varahagiri Venkata Giri
5 Basappa Danappa Jatti 31 August 1974 30 August 1979 Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
6 Muhammad Hidayat Ullah 31 August 1979 30 August 1984 Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
7 Ramaswamy Venkataraman 31 August 1984 27 July 1987 Giani Zail Singh
8 Shankar Dayal Sharma 3 September 1987 24 July 1992 Ramaswamy Venkataraman
9 Kocheril Raman Narayanan 21 August 1992 24 July 1997 Shankar Dayal Sharma
10[2] Krishan Kant 21 August 1997 27 July 2002 Kocheril Raman Narayanan
11 Bhairon Singh Shekhawat 19 August 2002 21 July 2007 A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
12 Mohammad Hamid Ansari[3] 11 August 2007 Incumbent Pratibha Patil

presidents of india

February 12, 2009
↓ Name  ↓ Portrait  ↓ Took office  ↓ Left office  ↓ Political party  ↓ Vice President  ↓ Notes  ↓
1 Rajendra Prasad 26 January 1950 13 May 1962 Indian National Congress Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Prasad was the first President of independent India.[7][8] He was also an independence activist of the Indian Independence Movement.[9] Prasad was the only president to serve for two terms in office.[4]
2 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan 13 May 1962 13 May 1967 Independent Zakir Hussain Radhakrishnan was a prominent philosopher, writer, a Knight of the Realm and also held the position of vice chancellor of the Andhra University and Banaras Hindu University.[10] He was also made a Knight of the Golden Army of Angels by Pope Paul VI.[11]
3 Zakir Hussain 13 May 1967 3 May 1969 Independent Varahagiri Venkata Giri Hussain was vice chancellor of the Aligarh Muslim University and a recipient of Padma Vibhushan and Bharat Ratna.[12] He died before his term of office was ended.
Varahagiri Venkata Giri * 3 May 1969 20 July 1969 Independent Giri was appointed as acting president following the death of Hussain.[13] He resigned in a few months to take part in the presidential elections.[5]
Muhammad Hidayatullah * 20 July 1969 24 August 1969 Independent Hidayatullah served as the Chief Justice of India, and was a recipient of the Order of the British Empire.[14] He served as acting president until the election of Giri as the President of India.
4 Varahagiri Venkata Giri 24 August 1969 24 August 1974 Independent Gopal Swarup Pathak Giri is the only person to have served as both an acting president and president of India. He was a recipient of the Bharat Ratna, and has functioned as Indian Minister of Labour and High Commissioner to Ceylon (Sri Lanka).[15]
5 Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed 24 August 1974 11 February 1977 Indian National Congress Basappa Danappa Jatti Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed served as a Minister before being elected as president. He died in 1977 before his term of office ended, and was the second Indian president to have died during a term of office.[16]
Basappa Danappa Jatti * 11 February 1977 25 July 1977 Independent Jatti was the vice president of India during Ahmed’s term of office, and was sworn in as acting president upon Ahmed’s death. He earlier functioned as the Chief Minister for the State of Mysore.[16][17]
6 Neelam Sanjiva Reddy 25 July 1977 25 July 1982 Janata Party Muhammad Hidayatullah Reddy was the only Member of Parliament from the Janata Party to get elected from Andhra Pradesh.[18] He was unanimously elected Speaker of the Lok Sabha on 26 March 1977 and relinquished this office on 13 July 1977 to become the 6th President of India.
7 Giani Zail Singh 25 July 1982 25 July 1987 Indian National Congress Ramaswamy Venkataraman In March 1972, Singh assumed the position of chief Minister of Punjab, and in 1980, he became Union Home Minister.[19]
8 Ramaswamy Venkataraman 25 July 1987 25 July 1992 Indian National Congress Shankar Dayal Sharma In 1942, Venkataraman was jailed by the British for his involvement in the India’s independence movement.[20] After his release, he was elected to independent India’s Provisional Parliament as a member of the Congress Party in 1950 and eventually joined the central government, where he first served as Minister of Finance and Industry and later as Minister of Defence.[21]
9 Shankar Dayal Sharma 25 July 1992 25 July 1997 Indian National Congress Kocheril Raman Narayanan Sharma was Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh, and the Indian Minister for Communications. He has also served as the governor of Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Maharashtra.[22]
10 Kocheril Raman Narayanan 25 July 1997 25 July 2002 Independent Krishan Kant Narayanan served as India’s ambassador to Thailand, Turkey, China and United States of America. He received doctorates in Science and Law and was also a chancellor in several universities.[23] He was also the vice-chancellor of Jawaharlal Nehru University.[24]
11 A. P. J. Abdul Kalam 25 July 2002 25 July 2007 Independent Bhairon Singh Shekhawat Kalam was a scientist who played a leading role in the development of India’s ballistic missile and nuclear weapons programs.[25] Kalam also received the Bharat Ratna.
12 Pratibha Patil 25 July 2007 Incumbent Indian National Congress Mohammad Hamid Ansari Patil was the first woman to become President of India. She was also the first female Governor of Rajasthan.

female noble laureates

February 12, 2009
↓ Image Laureate ↓ Country ↓ Category ↓ Rationale ↓
1903 Curie, MarieMarie Curie
(shared with Pierre Curie)
France Physics “in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel[8]
1905 von Suttner, BerthaBertha von Suttner Austria–Hungary Peace Honorary President of Permanent International Peace Bureau, Berne, Switzerland; Author of Lay Down Your Arms.[10]
1909 Lagerlöf, SelmaSelma Lagerlöf Sweden Literature “in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings”[11]
1911 Curie, MarieMarie Curie France Chemistry “for her discovery of radium and polonium[12]
1926 Deledda, GraziaGrazia Deledda Italy Literature “for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general”[13]
1928 Undset, SigridSigrid Undset Norway Literature “principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages”[14]
1931 Addams, JaneJane Addams
(shared with Nicholas Murray Butler)
United States Peace Sociologist; International President, Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom.[15]
1935 Joliot-Curie, IrèneIrène Joliot-Curie
(shared with Frédéric Joliot-Curie)
France Chemistry “for their synthesis of new radioactive elements”[16]
1938 Buck, Pearl S.Pearl S. Buck United States Literature “for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces”[17]
1945 Mistral, GabrielaGabriela Mistral Chile Literature “for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world”[18]
1946 Balch, Emily GreeneEmily Greene Balch
(shared with John Raleigh Mott)
United States Peace Formerly Professor of History and Sociology; Honorary International President, Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom.[19]
1947 Cori, Gerty TheresaGerty Theresa Cori
(shared with Carl Ferdinand Cori)
United States Physiology or Medicine “for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen[20]
1963 Goeppert-Mayer, MariaMaria Goeppert-Mayer
(shared with J. Hans D. Jensen)
United States Physics “for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure”[21]
1964 Hodgkin, Dorothy CrowfootDorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin United Kingdom Chemistry “for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances”[22]
1966 Sachs, NellyNelly Sachs Sweden Literature “for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel’s destiny with touching strength”[23]
1976 Williams, BettyBetty Williams United Kingdom Peace Founder of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People)[24]
1976 Corrigan, MaireadMairead Corrigan United Kingdom Peace Founder of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People)[24]
1977 Yalow, RosalynRosalyn Yalow United States Physiology or Medicine “for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones[25]
1979 Teresa, MotherMother Teresa India Peace Leader of Missionaries of Charity, Calcutta.[26]
1982 Myrdal, AlvaAlva Myrdal
(shared with Alfonso García Robles)
Sweden Peace Former Cabinet Minister; Diplomat; Writer.[27]
1983 McClintock, BarbaraBarbara McClintock United States Physiology or Medicine “for her discovery of mobile genetic elements[28]
1986 Levi-Montalcini, RitaRita Levi-Montalcini
(shared with Stanley Cohen)
United States
Physiology or Medicine “for their discoveries of growth factors[29]
1988 Elion, Gertrude B.Gertrude B. Elion
(shared with James W. Black and George H. Hitchings)
United States Physiology or Medicine “for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment[30]
1991 Gordimer, NadineNadine Gordimer South Africa Literature “who through her magnificent epic writing has – in the words of Alfred Nobel – been of very great benefit to humanity”[31]
1991 Suu Kyi, Aung SanAung San Suu Kyi Burma Peace “for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights”[32]
1992 Menchú, RigobertaRigoberta Menchú Guatemala Peace “in recognition of her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples”[33]
1993 Morrison, ToniToni Morrison United States Literature “who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality”[34]
1995 Nüsslein-Volhard, ChristianeChristiane Nüsslein-Volhard
(shared with Edward B. Lewis and Eric F. Wieschaus)
Germany Physiology or Medicine “for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development[35]
1996 Szymborska, WisławaWisława Szymborska Poland Literature “for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality”[36]
1997 Williams, JodyJody Williams
(shared with the International Campaign to Ban Landmines)
United States Peace “for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines”[37]
2003 Ebadi, ShirinShirin Ebadi Iran Peace “for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children”[38]
2004 Jelinek, ElfriedeElfriede Jelinek Austria Literature “for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society’s clichés and their subjugating power”[39]
2004 Maathai, WangariWangari Maathai Kenya Peace “for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace”[40]
2004 Buck, Linda B.Linda B. Buck
(shared with Richard Axel)
United States Physiology or Medicine “for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system[41]
2007 Lessing, DorisDoris Lessing United Kingdom Literature “that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny”[42]
2008 Barré-Sinoussi, FrançoiseFrançoise Barré-Sinoussi
(shared with Harald zur Hausen and Luc Montagnier)
France Physiology or Medicine “for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus

noble prize

February 12, 2009
Year  ↓ Physics ↓ Chemistry ↓ Physiology
or Medicine
Literature ↓ Peace ↓ Economics ↓
1901 Röntgen, Wilhelm ConradWilhelm Conrad Röntgen van ‘t Hoff, Jacobus H.Jacobus H. van ‘t Hoff von Behring, EmilEmil von Behring Prudhomme, SullySully Prudhomme Dunant, HenryHenry Dunant;
Passy, FrédéricFrédéric Passy
1902 Lorentz, Hendrik A.Hendrik A. Lorentz;
Zeeman, PieterPieter Zeeman
Fischer, Hermann EmilHermann Emil Fischer Ross, RonaldRonald Ross Mommsen, TheodorTheodor Mommsen Ducommun, ÉlieÉlie Ducommun;
Gobat, AlbertAlbert Gobat
1903 Becquerel, HenriHenri Becquerel;
Curie, PierrePierre Curie;
Curie, MarieMarie Curie
Arrhenius, SvanteSvante Arrhenius Finsen, Niels RybergNiels Ryberg Finsen Bjørnson, BjørnstjerneBjørnstjerne Bjørnson Cremer, RandalRandal Cremer
1904 Rayleigh, LordLord Rayleigh Ramsay, WilliamWilliam Ramsay Pavlov, Ivan PetrovichIvan Petrovich Pavlov Mistral, FrédéricFrédéric Mistral;
Echegaray, JoséJosé Echegaray
Institut de Droit International
1905 Lenard, PhilippPhilipp Lenard von Baeyer, AdolfAdolf von Baeyer Koch, RobertRobert Koch Sienkiewicz, HenrykHenryk Sienkiewicz von Suttner, BerthaBertha von Suttner
1906 Thomson, J.J.J.J. Thomson Moissan, HenriHenri Moissan Golgi, CamilloCamillo Golgi;
Ramón y Cajal, SantiagoSantiago Ramón y Cajal
Carducci, GiosuèGiosuè Carducci Roosevelt, TheodoreTheodore Roosevelt
1907 Michelson, Albert A.Albert A. Michelson Buchner, EduardEduard Buchner Laveran, Charles Louis AlphonseCharles Louis Alphonse Laveran Kipling, RudyardRudyard Kipling Moneta, Ernesto TeodoroErnesto Teodoro Moneta
1908 Lippmann, GabrielGabriel Lippmann Rutherford, ErnestErnest Rutherford Mechnikov, Ilya IlyichIlya Ilyich Mechnikov;
Ehrlich, PaulPaul Ehrlich
Eucken, Rudolf ChristophRudolf Christoph Eucken Arnoldson, Klas PontusKlas Pontus Arnoldson;
Bajer, FredrikFredrik Bajer
1909 Braun, FerdinandFerdinand Braun;
Marconi, GuglielmoGuglielmo Marconi
Ostwald, WilhelmWilhelm Ostwald Kocher, Emil TheodorEmil Theodor Kocher Lagerlöf, SelmaSelma Lagerlöf Beernaert, Auguste Marie FrançoisAuguste Marie François Beernaert;
d’Estournelles de Constant, Paul-Henri-BenjaminPaul-Henri-Benjamin d’Estournelles de Constant
1910 van der Waals, Johannes DiderikJohannes Diderik van der Waals Wallach, OttoOtto Wallach Kossel, AlbrechtAlbrecht Kossel Heyse, PaulPaul Heyse International Peace Bureau
1911 Wien, WilhelmWilhelm Wien Curie, MarieMarie Curie Gullstrand, AllvarAllvar Gullstrand Maeterlinck, MauriceMaurice Maeterlinck Asser, Tobias Michael CarelTobias Michael Carel Asser;
Fried, Alfred HermannAlfred Hermann Fried
1912 Dalén, GustafGustaf Dalén Grignard, VictorVictor Grignard;
Sabatier, PaulPaul Sabatier
Carrel, AlexisAlexis Carrel Hauptmann, GerhartGerhart Hauptmann Root, ElihuElihu Root
1913 Onnes, Heike KamerlinghHeike Kamerlingh Onnes Werner, AlfredAlfred Werner Richet, Charles RobertCharles Robert Richet Tagore, RabindranathRabindranath Tagore La Fontaine, HenriHenri La Fontaine
1914 von Laue, MaxMax von Laue Richards, Theodore WilliamTheodore William Richards Bárány, RobertRobert Bárány None None
1915 Bragg, William HenryWilliam Henry Bragg;
Bragg, William LawrenceWilliam Lawrence Bragg
Willstätter, Richard MartinRichard Martin Willstätter None Rolland, RomainRomain Rolland None
1916 None None None von Heidenstam, VernerVerner von Heidenstam None
1917 Barkla, Charles GloverCharles Glover Barkla None None Gjellerup, Karl AdolphKarl Adolph Gjellerup;
Pontoppidan, HenrikHenrik Pontoppidan
International Committee of the Red Cross
1918 Planck, MaxMax Planck Haber, FritzFritz Haber None None None
1919 Stark, JohannesJohannes Stark None Bordet, JulesJules Bordet Spitteler, CarlCarl Spitteler Wilson, WoodrowWoodrow Wilson
1920 Guillaume, Charles EdouardCharles Edouard Guillaume Nernst, Walther HermannWalther Hermann Nernst Krogh, AugustAugust Krogh Hamsun, KnutKnut Hamsun Bourgeois, LéonLéon Bourgeois
1921 Einstein, AlbertAlbert Einstein Soddy, FrederickFrederick Soddy None France, AnatoleAnatole France Branting, HjalmarHjalmar Branting;
Lange, Christian LousChristian Lous Lange
1922 Bohr, NielsNiels Bohr Aston, Francis WilliamFrancis William Aston Hill, ArchibaldArchibald Hill;
Meyerhof, Otto FritzOtto Fritz Meyerhof
Benavente, JacintoJacinto Benavente Nansen, FridtjofFridtjof Nansen
1923 Millikan, Robert A.Robert A. Millikan Pregl, FritzFritz Pregl Banting, FrederickFrederick Banting;
Macleod, John James RichardJohn James Richard Macleod
Yeats, William ButlerWilliam Butler Yeats None
1924 Siegbahn, ManneManne Siegbahn None Einthoven, WillemWillem Einthoven Reymont, WładysławWładysław Reymont None
1925 Franck, JamesJames Franck;
Hertz, GustavGustav Hertz
Zsigmondy, Richard AdolfRichard Adolf Zsigmondy None Shaw, George BernardGeorge Bernard Shaw Chamberlain, AustenAusten Chamberlain;
Dawes, Charles G.Charles G. Dawes
1926 Perrin, Jean BaptisteJean Baptiste Perrin Svedberg, TheodorTheodor Svedberg Fibiger, Johannes Andreas GribJohannes Andreas Grib Fibiger Deledda, GraziaGrazia Deledda Briand, AristideAristide Briand;
Stresemann, GustavGustav Stresemann
1927 Compton, Arthur H.Arthur H. Compton;
Wilson, C.T.R.C.T.R. Wilson
Wieland, Heinrich OttoHeinrich Otto Wieland Wagner-Jauregg, JuliusJulius Wagner-Jauregg Bergson, HenriHenri Bergson Buisson, FerdinandFerdinand Buisson;
Quidde, LudwigLudwig Quidde
1928 Richardson, Owen WillansOwen Willans Richardson Windaus, Adolf Otto ReinholdAdolf Otto Reinhold Windaus Nicolle, CharlesCharles Nicolle Undset, SigridSigrid Undset None
1929 de Broglie, LouisLouis de Broglie Harden, ArthurArthur Harden;
von Euler-Chelpin, HansHans von Euler-Chelpin
Eijkman, ChristiaanChristiaan Eijkman;
Hopkins, Frederick GowlandFrederick Gowland Hopkins
Mann, ThomasThomas Mann Kellogg, Frank B.Frank B. Kellogg
1930 Raman, VenkataVenkata Raman Fischer, HansHans Fischer Landsteiner, KarlKarl Landsteiner Lewis, SinclairSinclair Lewis Söderblom, NathanNathan Söderblom
1931 None Bosch, CarlCarl Bosch;
Bergius, FriedrichFriedrich Bergius
Warburg, Otto HeinrichOtto Heinrich Warburg Karlfeldt, Erik AxelErik Axel Karlfeldt Addams, JaneJane Addams;
Butler, Nicholas MurrayNicholas Murray Butler
1932 Heisenberg, WernerWerner Heisenberg Langmuir, IrvingIrving Langmuir Sherrington, Charles ScottCharles Scott Sherrington;
Adrian, Edgar DouglasEdgar Douglas Adrian
Galsworthy, JohnJohn Galsworthy None
1933 Schrödinger, ErwinErwin Schrödinger;
Dirac, Paul A.M.Paul A.M. Dirac
None Morgan, Thomas HuntThomas Hunt Morgan Bunin, IvanIvan Bunin Angell, NormanNorman Angell
1934 None Urey, Harold ClaytonHarold Clayton Urey Whipple, GeorgeGeorge Whipple;
Minot, GeorgeGeorge Minot;
Murphy, William P.William P. Murphy
Pirandello, LuigiLuigi Pirandello Henderson, ArthurArthur Henderson
1935 Chadwick, JamesJames Chadwick Joliot, FrédéricFrédéric Joliot;
Joliot-Curie, IreneIrene Joliot-Curie
Spemann, HansHans Spemann None von Ossietzky, CarlCarl von Ossietzky
1936 Hess, Victor F.Victor F. Hess;
Anderson, Carl D.Carl D. Anderson
Debye, PeterPeter Debye Dale, Henry HallettHenry Hallett Dale;
Loewi, OttoOtto Loewi
O’Neill, EugeneEugene O’Neill Lamas, Carlos SaavedraCarlos Saavedra Lamas
1937 Davisson, ClintonClinton Davisson;
Thomson, George PagetGeorge Paget Thomson
Haworth, WalterWalter Haworth;
Karrer, PaulPaul Karrer
Szent-Györgyi, AlbertAlbert Szent-Györgyi du Gard, Roger MartinRoger Martin du Gard Chelwood, Viscount, Cecil ofCecil of Chelwood, Viscount
1938 Fermi, EnricoEnrico Fermi Kuhn, RichardRichard Kuhn[A] Heymans, CorneilleCorneille Heymans Buck, Pearl S.Pearl S. Buck Nansen International Office For Refugees
1939 Lawrence, ErnestErnest Lawrence Butenandt, AdolfAdolf Butenandt;[A]
Ružička, LavoslavLavoslav Ružička
Domagk, GerhardGerhard Domagk[A] Sillanpää, Frans EemilFrans Eemil Sillanpää None
1940 None None None None None
1941 None None None None None
1942 None None None None None
1943 Stern, OttoOtto Stern de Hevesy, GeorgeGeorge de Hevesy Dam, HenrikHenrik Dam;
Doisy, Edward AdelbertEdward Adelbert Doisy
None None
1944 Rabi, Isidor IsaacIsidor Isaac Rabi Hahn, OttoOtto Hahn Erlanger, JosephJoseph Erlanger;
Gasser, Herbert SpencerHerbert Spencer Gasser
Jensen, Johannes VilhelmJohannes Vilhelm Jensen International Committee of the Red Cross
1945 Pauli, WolfgangWolfgang Pauli Virtanen, Artturi IlmariArtturi Ilmari Virtanen Fleming, AlexanderAlexander Fleming;
Chain, Ernst BorisErnst Boris Chain;
Florey, Howard WalterHoward Walter Florey
Mistral, GabrielaGabriela Mistral Hull, CordellCordell Hull
1946 Bridgman, Percy W.Percy W. Bridgman Sumner, James B.James B. Sumner;
Northrop, John HowardJohn Howard Northrop;
Stanley, Wendell MeredithWendell Meredith Stanley
Muller, Hermann JosephHermann Joseph Muller Hesse, HermannHermann Hesse Balch, Emily GreeneEmily Greene Balch;
Mott, JohnJohn Mott
1947 Appleton, Edward V.Edward V. Appleton Robinson, RobertRobert Robinson Cori, Carl FerdinandCarl Ferdinand Cori;
Cori, Gerty TheresaGerty Theresa Cori;
Houssay, BernardoBernardo Houssay
Gide, AndréAndré Gide Friends Service Council;
American Friends Service Committee
1948 Blackett, Patrick M.S.Patrick M.S. Blackett Tiselius, ArneArne Tiselius Müller, Paul HermannPaul Hermann Müller Eliot, T. S.T. S. Eliot None
1949 Yukawa, HidekiHideki Yukawa Giauque, WilliamWilliam Giauque Hess, Walter RudolfWalter Rudolf Hess;
Moniz, António EgasAntónio Egas Moniz
Faulkner, WilliamWilliam Faulkner Orr, John BoydJohn Boyd Orr
1950 Powell, CecilCecil Powell Diels, OttoOtto Diels;
Alder, KurtKurt Alder
Hench, Philip ShowalterPhilip Showalter Hench;
Kendall, Edward CalvinEdward Calvin Kendall;
Reichstein, TadeusTadeus Reichstein
Russell, BertrandBertrand Russell Bunche, RalphRalph Bunche
1951 Cockcroft, JohnJohn Cockcroft;
Walton, Ernest T.S.Ernest T.S. Walton
McMillan, EdwinEdwin McMillan;
Seaborg, Glenn T.Glenn T. Seaborg
Theiler, MaxMax Theiler Lagerkvist, PärPär Lagerkvist Jouhaux, LéonLéon Jouhaux
1952 Bloch, FelixFelix Bloch;
Purcell, E. M.E. M. Purcell
Martin, Archer John PorterArcher John Porter Martin;
Synge, Richard Laurence MillingtonRichard Laurence Millington Synge
Waksman, SelmanSelman Waksman Mauriac, FrançoisFrançois Mauriac Schweitzer, AlbertAlbert Schweitzer
1953 Zernike, FritsFrits Zernike Staudinger, HermannHermann Staudinger Krebs, Hans AdolfHans Adolf Krebs;
Lipmann, Fritz AlbertFritz Albert Lipmann
Churchill, WinstonWinston Churchill Marshall, GeorgeGeorge Marshall
1954 Born, MaxMax Born;
Bothe, WaltherWalther Bothe
Pauling, LinusLinus Pauling Enders, John FranklinJohn Franklin Enders;
Robbins, Frederick ChapmanFrederick Chapman Robbins;
Weller, Thomas HuckleThomas Huckle Weller
Hemingway, ErnestErnest Hemingway United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
1955 Lamb, Willis E.Willis E. Lamb;
Kusch, PolykarpPolykarp Kusch
du Vigneaud, VincentVincent du Vigneaud Theorell, HugoHugo Theorell Laxness, HalldórHalldór Laxness None
1956 Bardeen, JohnJohn Bardeen;
Brattain, Walter H.Walter H. Brattain;
Shockley, William B.William B. Shockley
Hinshelwood, Cyril NormanCyril Norman Hinshelwood;
Semenov, Nikolay NikolaevichNikolay Nikolaevich Semenov
Cournand, André FrédéricAndré Frédéric Cournand;
Forssmann, WernerWerner Forssmann;
Richards, Dickinson W.Dickinson W. Richards
Jiménez, Juan RamónJuan Ramón Jiménez None
1957 Yang, Chen NingChen Ning Yang;
Lee, Tsung-DaoTsung-Dao Lee
Todd, Lord (Alexander R.)Lord (Alexander R.) Todd Bovet, DanielDaniel Bovet Camus, AlbertAlbert Camus Pearson, Lester B.Lester B. Pearson
1958 Cherenkov, Pavel A.Pavel A. Cherenkov;
Frank, Il´ja M.Il´ja M. Frank;
Tamm, Igor Y.Igor Y. Tamm
Sanger, FrederickFrederick Sanger Beadle, George WellsGeorge Wells Beadle;
Tatum, Edward LawrieEdward Lawrie Tatum;
Lederberg, JoshuaJoshua Lederberg
Pasternak, BorisBoris Pasternak[B] Pire, GeorgesGeorges Pire
1959 Segrè, EmilioEmilio Segrè;
Chamberlain, OwenOwen Chamberlain
Heyrovský, JaroslavJaroslav Heyrovský Kornberg, ArthurArthur Kornberg;
Ochoa, SeveroSevero Ochoa
Quasimodo, SalvatoreSalvatore Quasimodo Noel-Baker, Philip J.Philip J. Noel-Baker
1960 Glaser, Donald A.Donald A. Glaser Libby, WillardWillard Libby Burnet, Frank MacfarlaneFrank Macfarlane Burnet;
Medawar, PeterPeter Medawar
Perse, Saint-JohnSaint-John Perse Lutuli, AlbertAlbert Lutuli
1961 Hofstadter, RobertRobert Hofstadter;
Mössbauer, RudolfRudolf Mössbauer
Calvin, MelvinMelvin Calvin von Békésy, GeorgGeorg von Békésy Andrić, IvoIvo Andrić Hammarskjöld, DagDag Hammarskjöld
1962 Landau, LevLev Landau Perutz, MaxMax Perutz;
Kendrew, JohnJohn Kendrew
Crick, FrancisFrancis Crick;
Watson, James D.James D. Watson;
Wilkins, MauriceMaurice Wilkins
Steinbeck, JohnJohn Steinbeck Pauling, LinusLinus Pauling
1963 Wigner, EugeneEugene Wigner;
Goeppert-Mayer, MariaMaria Goeppert-Mayer;
Jensen, J. Hans D.J. Hans D. Jensen
Ziegler, KarlKarl Ziegler;
Natta, GiulioGiulio Natta
Eccles, John CarewJohn Carew Eccles;
Hodgkin, Alan LloydAlan Lloyd Hodgkin;
Huxley, AndrewAndrew Huxley
Seferis, GiorgosGiorgos Seferis International Committee of the Red Cross;
League of Red Cross societies
1964 Townes, Charles H.Charles H. Townes;
Basov, Nicolay G.Nicolay G. Basov;
Prokhorov, Aleksandr M.Aleksandr M. Prokhorov
Hodgkin, Dorothy CrowfootDorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin Bloch, Konrad EmilKonrad Emil Bloch;
Lynen, Feodor Felix KonradFeodor Felix Konrad Lynen
Sartre, Jean-PaulJean-Paul Sartre[C] King, Jr., Martin LutherMartin Luther King, Jr.
1965 Tomonaga, Sin-ItiroSin-Itiro Tomonaga;
Schwinger, JulianJulian Schwinger;
Feynman, Richard P.Richard P. Feynman
Woodward, Robert BurnsRobert Burns Woodward Jacob, FrançoisFrançois Jacob;
Lwoff, André MichelAndré Michel Lwoff;
Monod, JacquesJacques Monod
Sholokhov, Michail AleksandrovichMichail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF)
1966 Kastler, AlfredAlfred Kastler Mulliken, Robert S.Robert S. Mulliken Rous, Francis PeytonFrancis Peyton Rous;
Huggins, Charles BrentonCharles Brenton Huggins
Agnon, Shmuel YosefShmuel Yosef Agnon;
Sachs, NellyNelly Sachs
1967 Bethe, HansHans Bethe Eigen, ManfredManfred Eigen;
Norrish, Ronald George WreyfordRonald George Wreyford Norrish;
Porter, GeorgeGeorge Porter
Granit, RagnarRagnar Granit;
Hartline, Haldan KefferHaldan Keffer Hartline;
Wald, GeorgeGeorge Wald
Asturias, Miguel ÁngelMiguel Ángel Asturias None
1968 Alvarez, LuisLuis Alvarez Onsager, LarsLars Onsager Holley, Robert W.Robert W. Holley;
Khorana, Har GobindHar Gobind Khorana;
Nirenberg, Marshall WarrenMarshall Warren Nirenberg
Kawabata, YasunariYasunari Kawabata Cassin, RenéRené Cassin
1969 Gell-Mann, MurrayMurray Gell-Mann Barton, DerekDerek Barton;
Hassel, OddOdd Hassel
Delbrück, MaxMax Delbrück;
Hershey, AlfredAlfred Hershey;
Luria, SalvadorSalvador Luria
Beckett, SamuelSamuel Beckett International Labour Organization Frisch, Ragnar Anton KittilRagnar Anton Kittil Frisch;
Tinbergen, JanJan Tinbergen
1970 Alfvén, HannesHannes Alfvén;
Néel, LouisLouis Néel
Leloir, Luis F.Luis F. Leloir Axelrod, JuliusJulius Axelrod;
von Euler, UlfUlf von Euler;
Katz, BernardBernard Katz
Solzhenitsyn, AleksandrAleksandr Solzhenitsyn Borlaug, NormanNorman Borlaug Samuelson, PaulPaul Samuelson
1971 Gabor, DennisDennis Gabor Herzberg, GerhardGerhard Herzberg Sutherland, Jr., Earl WilburEarl Wilbur Sutherland, Jr. Neruda, PabloPablo Neruda Brandt, WillyWilly Brandt Kuznets, SimonSimon Kuznets
1972 Bardeen, JohnJohn Bardeen;
Cooper, Leon NeilLeon Neil Cooper;
Schrieffer, RobertRobert Schrieffer
Anfinsen, Christian B.Christian B. Anfinsen;
Moore, StanfordStanford Moore;
Stein, William HowardWilliam Howard Stein
Edelman, GeraldGerald Edelman;
Porter, Rodney RobertRodney Robert Porter
Böll, HeinrichHeinrich Böll None Hicks, JohnJohn Hicks;
Arrow, KennethKenneth Arrow
1973 Esaki, LeoLeo Esaki;
Giaever, IvarIvar Giaever;
Josephson, Brian D.Brian D. Josephson
Fischer, Ernst OttoErnst Otto Fischer;
Wilkinson, GeoffreyGeoffrey Wilkinson
von Frisch, KarlKarl von Frisch;
Lorenz, KonradKonrad Lorenz;
Tinbergen, NikolaasNikolaas Tinbergen
White, PatrickPatrick White Kissinger, HenryHenry Kissinger;
Thọ, Lê ÐứcLê Ðức Thọ[D]
Leontief, WassilyWassily Leontief
1974 Ryle, MartinMartin Ryle;
Hewish, AntonyAntony Hewish
Flory, PaulPaul Flory Claude, AlbertAlbert Claude;
de Duve, ChristianChristian de Duve;
Palade, George EmilGeorge Emil Palade
Johnson, EyvindEyvind Johnson;
Martinson, HarryHarry Martinson
MacBride, SeánSeán MacBride;
Satō, EisakuEisaku Satō
Myrdal, GunnarGunnar Myrdal;
Hayek, FriedrichFriedrich Hayek
1975 Bohr, Aage N.Aage N. Bohr;
Mottelson, Ben R.Ben R. Mottelson;
Rainwater, JamesJames Rainwater
Cornforth, JohnJohn Cornforth;
Prelog, VladimirVladimir Prelog
Baltimore, DavidDavid Baltimore;
Dulbecco, RenatoRenato Dulbecco;
Temin, Howard MartinHoward Martin Temin
Montale, EugenioEugenio Montale Sakharov, AndreiAndrei Sakharov Kantorovich, LeonidLeonid Kantorovich;
Koopmans, TjallingTjalling Koopmans
1976 Richter, BurtonBurton Richter;
Ting, Samuel C.C.Samuel C.C. Ting
Lipscomb, WilliamWilliam Lipscomb Blumberg, Baruch SamuelBaruch Samuel Blumberg;
Gajdusek, Daniel CarletonDaniel Carleton Gajdusek
Bellow, SaulSaul Bellow Williams, BettyBetty Williams;
Corrigan, MaireadMairead Corrigan
Friedman, MiltonMilton Friedman
1977 Anderson, Philip W.Philip W. Anderson;
Mott, Sir Nevill F.Sir Nevill F. Mott;
van Vleck, John H.John H. van Vleck
Prigogine, IlyaIlya Prigogine Guillemin, RogerRoger Guillemin;
Schally, AndrewAndrew Schally;
Yalow, Rosalyn SussmanRosalyn Sussman Yalow
Aleixandre, VicenteVicente Aleixandre Amnesty International Ohlin, BertilBertil Ohlin;
Meade, JamesJames Meade
1978 Kapitsa, PyotrPyotr Kapitsa;
Penzias, ArnoArno Penzias;
Wilson, Robert WoodrowRobert Woodrow Wilson
Mitchell, Peter D.Peter D. Mitchell Arber, WernerWerner Arber;
Nathans, DanielDaniel Nathans;
Smith, Hamilton O.Hamilton O. Smith
Singer, Isaac BashevisIsaac Bashevis Singer Sadat, Anwar ElAnwar El Sadat;
Begin, MenachemMenachem Begin
Simon, HerbertHerbert Simon
1979 Glashow, SheldonSheldon Glashow;
Salam, AbdusAbdus Salam;
Weinberg, StevenSteven Weinberg
Brown, Herbert C.Herbert C. Brown;
Wittig, GeorgGeorg Wittig
Cormack, Allan McLeodAllan McLeod Cormack;
Hounsfield, GodfreyGodfrey Hounsfield
Elytis, OdysseasOdysseas Elytis Teresa, MotherMother Teresa Schultz, TheodoreTheodore Schultz;
Lewis, ArthurArthur Lewis
1980 Cronin, JamesJames Cronin;
Fitch, ValVal Fitch
Berg, PaulPaul Berg;
Gilbert, WalterWalter Gilbert;
Sanger, FrederickFrederick Sanger
Benacerraf, BarujBaruj Benacerraf;
Dausset, JeanJean Dausset;
Snell, George DavisGeorge Davis Snell
Miłosz, CzesławCzesław Miłosz Esquivel, Adolfo PérezAdolfo Pérez Esquivel Klein, LawrenceLawrence Klein
1981 Bloembergen, NicolaasNicolaas Bloembergen;
Schawlow, Arthur L.Arthur L. Schawlow;
Siegbahn, Kai M.Kai M. Siegbahn
Fukui, KenichiKenichi Fukui;
Hoffmann, RoaldRoald Hoffmann
Sperry, Roger W.Roger W. Sperry;
Hubel, David H.David H. Hubel;
Wiesel, Torsten N.Torsten N. Wiesel
Canetti, EliasElias Canetti United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Tobin, JamesJames Tobin
1982 Wilson, Kenneth G.Kenneth G. Wilson Klug, AaronAaron Klug Bergström, SuneSune Bergström;
Samuelsson, Bengt I.Bengt I. Samuelsson;
Vane, John RobertJohn Robert Vane
Márquez, Gabriel GarcíaGabriel García Márquez Myrdal, AlvaAlva Myrdal;
Robles, Alfonso GarcíaAlfonso García Robles
Stigler, GeorgeGeorge Stigler
1983 Chandrasekhar, SubramanyanSubramanyan Chandrasekhar;
Fowler, William A.William A. Fowler
Taube, HenryHenry Taube McClintock, BarbaraBarbara McClintock Golding, WilliamWilliam Golding Wałęsa, LechLech Wałęsa Debreu, GérardGérard Debreu
1984 Rubbia, CarloCarlo Rubbia;
van der Meer, SimonSimon van der Meer
Merrifield, Robert BruceRobert Bruce Merrifield Jerne, Niels KajNiels Kaj Jerne;
Köhler, Georges J. F.Georges J. F. Köhler;
Milstein, CésarCésar Milstein
Seifert, JaroslavJaroslav Seifert Tutu, DesmondDesmond Tutu Stone, RichardRichard Stone
1985 von Klitzing, KlausKlaus von Klitzing Hauptman, Herbert A.Herbert A. Hauptman;
Karle, JeromeJerome Karle
Brown, Michael StuartMichael Stuart Brown;
Goldstein, Joseph L.Joseph L. Goldstein
Simon, ClaudeClaude Simon International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War Modigliani, FrancoFranco Modigliani
1986 Ruska, ErnstErnst Ruska;
Binnig, GerdGerd Binnig;
Rohrer, HeinrichHeinrich Rohrer
Herschbach, Dudley R.Dudley R. Herschbach;
Lee, Yuan T.Yuan T. Lee;
Polanyi, John C.John C. Polanyi
Cohen, StanleyStanley Cohen;
Levi-Montalcini, RitaRita Levi-Montalcini
Soyinka, WoleWole Soyinka Wiesel, ElieElie Wiesel Buchanan, James M.James M. Buchanan
1987 Bednorz, J. GeorgJ. Georg Bednorz;
Müller, K. AlexK. Alex Müller
Cram, Donald J.Donald J. Cram;
Lehn, Jean-MarieJean-Marie Lehn;
Pedersen, Charles J.Charles J. Pedersen
Tonegawa, SusumuSusumu Tonegawa Brodsky, JosephJoseph Brodsky Arias, ÓscarÓscar Arias Solow, RobertRobert Solow
1988 Lederman, Leon M.Leon M. Lederman;
Schwartz, MelvinMelvin Schwartz;
Steinberger, JackJack Steinberger
Deisenhofer, JohannJohann Deisenhofer;
Huber, RobertRobert Huber;
Michel, HartmutHartmut Michel
Black, James W.James W. Black;
Elion, Gertrude B.Gertrude B. Elion;
Hitchings, George H.George H. Hitchings
Mahfouz, NaguibNaguib Mahfouz United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces Allais, MauriceMaurice Allais
1989 Ramsey, Norman F.Norman F. Ramsey;
Dehmelt, Hans G.Hans G. Dehmelt;
Paul, WolfgangWolfgang Paul
Altman, SidneySidney Altman;
Cech, ThomasThomas Cech
Bishop, J. MichaelJ. Michael Bishop;
Varmus, Harold E.Harold E. Varmus
Cela, Camilo JoséCamilo José Cela Gyatso, TenzinTenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama Haavelmo, TrygveTrygve Haavelmo
1990 Friedman, Jerome I.Jerome I. Friedman;
Kendall, Henry W.Henry W. Kendall;
Taylor, Richard E.Richard E. Taylor
Corey, Elias JamesElias James Corey Murray, JosephJoseph Murray;
Thomas, E. DonnallE. Donnall Thomas
Paz, OctavioOctavio Paz Gorbachev, MikhailMikhail Gorbachev Markowitz, HarryHarry Markowitz;
Miller, MertonMerton Miller;
Sharpe, William ForsythWilliam Forsyth Sharpe
1991 de Gennes, Pierre-GillesPierre-Gilles de Gennes Ernst, Richard R.Richard R. Ernst Neher, ErwinErwin Neher;
Sakmann, BertBert Sakmann
Gordimer, NadineNadine Gordimer Suu Kyi, Aung SanAung San Suu Kyi Coase, RonaldRonald Coase
1992 Charpak, GeorgesGeorges Charpak Marcus, Rudolph A.Rudolph A. Marcus Fischer, Edmond H.Edmond H. Fischer;
Krebs, Edwin G.Edwin G. Krebs
Walcott, DerekDerek Walcott Menchú, RigobertaRigoberta Menchú Becker, GaryGary Becker
1993 Hulse, Russell A.Russell A. Hulse;
Taylor, Jr., Joseph H.Joseph H. Taylor, Jr.
Mullis, KaryKary Mullis;
Smith, MichaelMichael Smith
Roberts, Richard J.Richard J. Roberts;
Sharp, Phillip AllenPhillip Allen Sharp
Morrison, ToniToni Morrison Mandela, NelsonNelson Mandela;
de Klerk, Frederik WillemFrederik Willem de Klerk
Fogel, RobertRobert Fogel;
North, DouglassDouglass North
1994 Brockhouse, Bertram N.Bertram N. Brockhouse;
Shull, Clifford G.Clifford G. Shull
Olah, George AndrewGeorge Andrew Olah Gilman, Alfred G.Alfred G. Gilman;
Rodbell, MartinMartin Rodbell
Oe, KenzaburoKenzaburo Oe Arafat, YasserYasser Arafat;
Peres, ShimonShimon Peres;
Rabin, YitzhakYitzhak Rabin
Harsanyi, JohnJohn Harsanyi;
Nash, John ForbesJohn Forbes Nash;
Selten, ReinhardReinhard Selten
1995 Perl, Martin L.Martin L. Perl;
Reines, FrederickFrederick Reines
Crutzen, Paul J.Paul J. Crutzen;
Molina, Mario J.Mario J. Molina;
Rowland, Frank SherwoodFrank Sherwood Rowland
Lewis, Edward B.Edward B. Lewis;
Nüsslein-Volhard, ChristianeChristiane Nüsslein-Volhard;
Wieschaus, Eric F.Eric F. Wieschaus
Heaney, SeamusSeamus Heaney Rotblat, JosephJoseph Rotblat;
Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
Lucas, Jr., RobertRobert Lucas, Jr.
1996 Lee, David M.David M. Lee;
Osheroff, Douglas D.Douglas D. Osheroff;
Richardson, Robert ColemanRobert Coleman Richardson
Curl Jr., Robert F.Robert F. Curl Jr.;
Kroto, HaroldHarold Kroto;
Smalley, RichardRichard Smalley
Doherty, Peter C.Peter C. Doherty;
Zinkernagel, Rolf M.Rolf M. Zinkernagel
Szymborska, WisławaWisława Szymborska Belo, Carlos Filipe XimenesCarlos Filipe Ximenes Belo;
Ramos-Horta, JoséJosé Ramos-Horta
Mirrlees, JamesJames Mirrlees;
Vickrey, WilliamWilliam Vickrey
1997 Chu, StevenSteven Chu;
Cohen-Tannoudji, ClaudeClaude Cohen-Tannoudji;
Phillips, William D.William D. Phillips
Boyer, Paul D.Paul D. Boyer;
Walker, John E.John E. Walker;
Skou, Jens ChristianJens Christian Skou
Prusiner, Stanley B.Stanley B. Prusiner Fo, DarioDario Fo International Campaign to Ban Landmines;
Williams, JodyJody Williams
Merton, Robert C.Robert C. Merton;
Scholes, MyronMyron Scholes
1998 Laughlin, Robert B.Robert B. Laughlin;
Störmer, Horst L.Horst L. Störmer;
Tsui, Daniel C.Daniel C. Tsui
Kohn, WalterWalter Kohn;
Pople, JohnJohn Pople
Furchgott, Robert F.Robert F. Furchgott;
Ignarro, Louis J.Louis J. Ignarro;
Murad, FeridFerid Murad
Saramago, JoséJosé Saramago Hume, JohnJohn Hume;
Trimble, DavidDavid Trimble
Sen, AmartyaAmartya Sen
1999 Hooft, Gerardus ‘tGerardus ‘t Hooft;
Veltman, Martinus J.G.Martinus J.G. Veltman
Zewail, AhmedAhmed Zewail Blobel, GünterGünter Blobel Grass, GünterGünter Grass Médecins Sans Frontières Mundell, RobertRobert Mundell
2000 Alferov, Zhores I.Zhores I. Alferov;
Kroemer, HerbertHerbert Kroemer;
Kilby, JackJack Kilby
Heeger, Alan J.Alan J. Heeger;
MacDiarmid, AlanAlan MacDiarmid;
Shirakawa, HidekiHideki Shirakawa
Carlsson, ArvidArvid Carlsson;
Greengard, PaulPaul Greengard;
Kandel, EricEric Kandel
Xingjian, GaoGao Xingjian Jung, Kim DaeKim Dae Jung Heckman, JamesJames Heckman;
McFadden, DanielDaniel McFadden
2001 Cornell, Eric A.Eric A. Cornell;
Ketterle, WolfgangWolfgang Ketterle;
Wieman, Carl E.Carl E. Wieman
Knowles, William S.William S. Knowles;
Noyori, RyojiRyoji Noyori;
Sharpless, Karl BarryKarl Barry Sharpless
Hartwell, Leland H.Leland H. Hartwell;
Hunt, TimTim Hunt;
Nurse, PaulPaul Nurse
Naipaul, V. S.V. S. Naipaul United Nations;
Annan, KofiKofi Annan
Akerlof, GeorgeGeorge Akerlof;
Spence, MichaelMichael Spence;
Stiglitz, Joseph E.Joseph E. Stiglitz
2002 Davis, Jr., RaymondRaymond Davis, Jr.;
Koshiba, MasatoshiMasatoshi Koshiba;
Giacconi, RiccardoRiccardo Giacconi
Fenn, John BennettJohn Bennett Fenn;
Tanaka, KoichiKoichi Tanaka;
Wüthrich, KurtKurt Wüthrich
Brenner, SydneySydney Brenner;
Horvitz, H. RobertH. Robert Horvitz;
Sulston, John E.John E. Sulston
Kertész, ImreImre Kertész Carter, JimmyJimmy Carter Kahneman, DanielDaniel Kahneman;
Smith, Vernon L.Vernon L. Smith
2003 Abrikosov, Alexei A.Alexei A. Abrikosov;
Ginzburg, Vitaly L.Vitaly L. Ginzburg;
Leggett, Anthony J.Anthony J. Leggett
Agre, PeterPeter Agre;
MacKinnon, RoderickRoderick MacKinnon
Lauterbur, PaulPaul Lauterbur;
Mansfield, PeterPeter Mansfield
Coetzee, J. M.J. M. Coetzee Ebadi, ShirinShirin Ebadi Engle, Robert F.Robert F. Engle;
Granger, CliveClive Granger
2004 Gross, David J.David J. Gross;
Politzer, H. DavidH. David Politzer;
Wilczek, FrankFrank Wilczek
Ciechanover, AaronAaron Ciechanover;
Hershko, AvramAvram Hershko;
Rose, IrwinIrwin Rose
Axel, RichardRichard Axel;
Buck, Linda B.Linda B. Buck
Jelinek, ElfriedeElfriede Jelinek Maathai, WangariWangari Maathai Kydland, Finn E.Finn E. Kydland;
Prescott, Edward C.Edward C. Prescott
2005 Glauber, Roy J.Roy J. Glauber;
Hall, John L.John L. Hall;
Hänsch, Theodor W.Theodor W. Hänsch
Chauvin, YvesYves Chauvin;
Grubbs, Robert H.Robert H. Grubbs;
Schrock, Richard R.Richard R. Schrock
Marshall, BarryBarry Marshall;
Warren, RobinRobin Warren
Pinter, HaroldHarold Pinter International Atomic Energy Agency;
ElBaradei, MohamedMohamed ElBaradei
Aumann, RobertRobert Aumann;
Schelling, ThomasThomas Schelling
2006 Mather, John C.John C. Mather;
Smoot, George F.George F. Smoot
Kornberg, Roger D.Roger D. Kornberg Fire, AndrewAndrew Fire;
Mello, CraigCraig Mello
Pamuk, OrhanOrhan Pamuk Yunus, MuhammadMuhammad Yunus;
Grameen Bank
Phelps, EdmundEdmund Phelps
2007 Fert, AlbertAlbert Fert;
Grünberg, PeterPeter Grünberg
Ertl, GerhardGerhard Ertl Capecchi, MarioMario Capecchi;
Evans, MartinMartin Evans;
Smithies, OliverOliver Smithies
Lessing, DorisDoris Lessing Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change;
Gore, AlAl Gore
Hurwicz, LeonidLeonid Hurwicz;
Maskin, EricEric Maskin;
Myerson, RogerRoger Myerson
2008 Nambu, YoichiroYoichiro Nambu;
Kobayashi, MakotoMakoto Kobayashi;
Maskawa, ToshihideToshihide Maskawa
Shimomura, OsamuOsamu Shimomura;
Chalfie, MartinMartin Chalfie;
Tsien, Roger Y.Roger Y. Tsien
zur Hausen, HaraldHarald zur Hausen;
Barré-Sinoussi, FrançoiseFrançoise Barré-Sinoussi;
Montagnier, LucLuc Montagnier
Le Clézio, Jean-Marie GustaveJean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio Ahtisaari, MarttiMartti Ahtisaari Krugman, PaulPaul Krugman

gandhi peace prize

February 12, 2009

Gandhi Peace Prize Recipients

No  ↓ Year  ↓ Name  ↓ Recipient Description  ↓
1. 1995 Julius Nyerere 1st President of Tanzania
2. 1996 A. T. Ariyaratne Founder of Sarvodaya Shramadana Movement
3. 1997 Gerhard Fischer
4. 1998 Ramakrishna Mission Founded by Swami Vivekananda
5. 1999[1] Baba Amte Social Worker
6. 2000 Nelson Mandela (co-recipient) Former President of South Africa
7. 2000 Grameen Bank (co-recipient) Founded by Muhammad Yunus
8. 2001[2] John Hume Northern Irish Politician
9. 2002 Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan
10. 2003 Václav Havel
11. 2004 Coretta Scott King Widow of Martin Luther King
12. 2005[3] Desmond Tutu South African cleric and activist
13. 2006[4] Nelson Mandela Former South African president